by Dr. Phil Fernandes
A chapter from his doctoral dissertation
© 1997, Institute of Biblical Defense, All Rights Reserved
Thermodynamics deals with the relationship between heat, energy, and work.1 The first and second laws of thermodynamics pose serious problems for evolution. The first law of thermodynamics is called energy conservation. It states that the amount of energy in the universe remains constant; no energy is now being created or destroyed.2 This means that if the universe had a beginning, whatever process or act that brought the universe into existence is no longer in operation today. In other words, the “creation process” is no longer operating today. Therefore, either the universe is eternal or the universe was created in the past; no continuing creative process is occurring.
The second law of thermodynamics is called entropy. Though the amount of energy in the universe remains constant, it changes form. The second law states that when energy changes form it becomes less usable.3 Therefore, the amount of usable energy in the universe is running out. This means that the day will come when all the energy in the universe will have been used up. This will be the death of the universe. There must have been a time when all the energy of the universe was usable; this would be the beginning of the universe. In other words, since the universe is going to have an end, it is not eternal. If it is not eternal, then it must have had a beginning. The big bang model and the expansion of the universe also confirm the beginning of the universe.4
The evolutionist faces a dilemma. The first and second laws of thermodynamics together declare that the universe had a beginning. The evolutionists cannot deny these laws, for they are considered to be the most firmly established laws of modern science.5 But, evolution runs counter to these two laws. When a scientific model contradicts a scientific law, the model should be abandoned. Since the first and second laws of thermodynamics teach that the universe had a beginning, then something outside the universe must have caused the universe to come into existence. For, from nothing nothing comes. Therefore, the universe could not have evolved into existence out of nothing.
EVOLUTIONARY DATING METHODS
The evolutionary dating methods are inconsistent and unreliable. All evolutionary dating methods are based upon uniformitarianism.6 Uniformitarianism assumes that there were no world-wide catastrophes; therefore, the rate of decay has remained constant. Uniformitarianism assumes that today’s processes have continued at the same rate throughout all time. However, if there were a world-wide flood and a special creation by God, then this uniformitarian assumption would be unwarrented.7
Evolutionary dating methods have been shown to be unreliable. Rocks known to have been only a few hundred years old have been dated to be hundreds of millions of years old.8 Henry Morris has stated that there are many different ways to date the earth’s age, but evolutionists only use those methods which give astronomically old dates since evolution needs millions of years to seem even slightly possible.9 Two methods which point to a young earth are population statistics and the earth’s magnetic field.10 If one assumes the principle of uniformitarianism, then due to the present rate at which the population of mankind increases, the start of the present population would take one back 4,300 years to the traditional date for the flood.11 Concerning the strength of the earth’s magnetic field, if one assumes that the present rate of decay remains the same going back indefinitely into the past, then about 7,000 years ago it would have been too strong to sustain life.12
The most convincing argument for an old earth is probably that of the speed of light.13 The speed of light is assumed by scientists to be constant. The light of distant stars and galaxies can be seen on earth. Since it would have taken billions of years for the light of some of these celestial bodies to reach earth (assuming the speed of light has remained the same throughout all time), the universe must be billions of years old.14 However, Barry Setterfield of Australia studied every measurement of the speed of light and found that the speed of light has not been constant throughout all time; it had been faster in the past.15 Setterfield’s research, if reliable, reveals the age of the universe to be only 6,000 years old.16
Even if the universe is old, this would not refute the creation model. Many creationists believe in an old universe.17 However, if the universe is young, the evolution model is destroyed. One thing is clear: the principle of uniformitarianism is an assumption that appears to go against the evidence. If uniformitarianism is true, then all the dating methods would reveal the same approximate dates. These dates would be old or young; they would not be old and young. Since some dating methods point to an old earth and others point to a young earth, the evolutionary dating methods are unreliable. Since uniformitarianism is not a given, the date of the universe is an open question.
THE FOSSIL RECORD
The fossil record is assumed to prove evolution, but, this is not the case. The fossil record shows no evidence of transitional forms (missing links). New life forms appear suddenly and fully developed.18 There are no animals with half-fins or half-wings in the fossil record. If there were transitional forms, why have none been found? This is a serious problem for evolutionists. Harvard paleontologists Stephen Jay Gould and Louis Agassiz have admitted this lack of evidence for evolution in the fossil record.19 Aggassiz, a nineteenth-century creationist, stated:
Species appear suddenly and disappear suddenly in the progressive strata. . . . the supposed intermediate forms between the species of different geological periods are imaginary beings, called up merely in support of a fanciful theory.20
Gould, a twentieth century evolutionist, stated:
In any local area, a species does not arise gradually by the steady transformation of its ancestors; it appears all at once and “fully formed.”21
It is interesting to note that the first geologists believed that the fossil record was evidence for the world-wide flood recorded in the Bible.22 This view is strengthened by the fact that fossilization is extremely rare today. Even if the earth existed for millions of years, that would not be enough time for the present fossil record to have been produced without any world-wide catastrophes.23 Fossilization is world-wide and caused by the rapid burial of animals, which is something a world-wide flood would do.24
Another problem for evolution concerning the fossil record is polystrate fossils. These are fossils that extend through two or more layers of sedimentary rock.25 These fossils are usually trees. In order for a standing tree to be fossilized, it would have to be quickly buried before it decayed. However, in these polystrate fossils, the several layers of earth through which the tree extends supposedly took millions of years to form.26 This reveals that evolutionists are mistaken when they assume that layers of sedimentary rock must take millions of years to form and therefore indicate large quantities of time. No tree can live for millions of years. Therefore, these layers of sedimentary rock are not evidence for an old earth. They could have been formed rapidly.27
Another problem for evolution is the fact that the fossil record often appears out of sequence.28 Sometimes “old” fossils appear resting on rock layers containing “younger” fossils.29 The geologic column is “an imagined chronological arrangement of rock units in columnar form with the presumed oldest units at the bottom and presumed youngest at the top.”30 However, the world is full of strata appearing in the wrong order.31 If these layers took millions of years to be formed as evolutionists say, then this would not be the case.
If one assumes the possibility that the fossil record was formed rapidly, the world-wide flood offers the a better explanation. The flood would tend to bury fossils in this order. First, deep oceans creatures would be fossilized. Then, creatures in shallower water, followed by amphibians and land-bordering creatures. Next would be swamp, marsh, and low river-flat creatures (especially reptiles). After that, higher mammals who retreated to higher ground in their attempt to escape the flood would be fossilized. Finally, humans would be overtaken.32 This would be the “standard” order; still, there would be many exceptions due to upheavals in the earth’s crust during and after the world-wide flood.33 A world-wide catastrophe such as the flood offers a much more plausible explanation for these exceptions than evolution does.34
Other interesting aspects of flood geology are the canopy theory and the global ice age. The canopy theory refers to Genesis 1:6-8.35 In that passage, the Bible teaches that God surrounded the earth’s atmosphere with a huge canopy of water. This would have worked liked the ozone layer does today. It would have filtered out poisonous rays from the sun, thus increasing longevity. This may explain why the Bible records pre-flood men living more than nine-hundred years (Genesis 5). After the flood, man’s life-span would drastically decrease. The water contained in the canopy descended in the great flood (Genesis 6:11-12) and covered the entire earth (Genesis 7:19). This would explain why three-fourths of the earth’s surface is covered with water. In fact, if the earth were a completely smooth sphere, it would be covered by water 1.5 miles in depth.36 After the flood, tremendous upheavals in the earth’s crust due to the catastrophe would cause valleys to sink and mountains to rise (Psalm 104:5-9). The mountains that rose would become the dry land man now inhabits. The upheavals in the earth’s crust could also explain much of the continental shifts that scientists have shown to have occurred.
A global flood would cause a global ice age.37 Today, evolutionists accept the global ice age, but they reject a universal flood which could have caused it. Because of this, glacial geologists have failed to determine what caused the ice age. Also the lack of vegetation due to the ice age would have killed off most of the dinosaurs, though some recent dinosaur sightings are well-documented.38
LACK OF TRANSITIONAL FORMS
A devastating problem for the evolution model is the lack of transitional forms. No one possesses an undisputed missing link. All the supposed missing links between apes and men have been dismissed. Neanderthal Man and Cro-Magnon Man both have the features of modern man.39 Colorado Man turned out to be a member of the horse family.40 Java Man (also known as Pithecanthropus) was shown to be the remains of a large gibbon.41 Heidelberg Man consisted of only a lower jaw.42 Obviously, a lower jaw is insufficient evidence for a missing link. One can only speculate as to the makeup of the rest of the skull and skeleton. The Piltdown Man was revealed to be a clever hoax.43 The Peking Man is now thought to be a large monkey or baboon.44 The Southern Ape (also called Australopithecus), Dryopithecus, and Ramapithecus were extinct apes.45 The East African Man (Zinjanthropus) was shown to be an ape.46 Finally, the Nebraska Man, which consisted of only one tooth, was proven to be the tooth of an extinct pig.47 This is rather interesting since this tooth had been presented as evidence in the 1925 “monkey trial” as “evidence” for the evolutionary model.48 When the tooth of an extinct pig is mistaken for the tooth of the missing link between apes and men, it shows how subjective modern science has become. Though high school and college textbooks show drawings of the missing links from apes to men, the fact is that this art merely depicts the vivid imagination of scientists. No undisputed missing link between apes and men has been discovered.
Archaeopteryx was once thought to be a transitional form between reptiles and birds.49 It had features resembling that of a reptile (teeth, lizard-like tail, and claws). But, archaeopteryx also had wings and feathers similar to a bird. Still, the archaeopteryx was fully developed. It did not have half-wings or the like. Archaeopteryx has now been classified as a bird. This is due to the fact that every characteristic of archaeopteryx can be found in some genuine bird, though some of its features are not found in reptiles.50 It should also be noted that the supposed evolution of reptiles into birds is highly improbable. The lungs of a reptile have millions of tiny air sacs, while the lungs of birds have tubes. In order for a transitional form to exist between a reptile and a bird it would have to breathe without having fully-developed lungs.51
An extinct, small three-toed animal called Eohippus was once thought to be the ancestor of the modern, large, one-toed horse.52 It is now doubtful that Eohippus should have ever been classified in the horse family. Eohippus is probably an extinct type of hyrax.53
Evolutions believe that invertebrates (animals without backbones) have evolved into vertebrates (animals with backbones). However, no transitional form between the two has ever been found.54
This lack of transitional forms is very problematic for the evolution model. It has been over 130 years since Darwin wrote The Origin of Species. Still, no missing links have been found. Due to this absence of evidence for evolution, modern evolutionists like Stephen Jay Gould have proposed a new model called “Punctuated Equilibrium.”55 Whereas evolution means “gradual change,” Punctuated Equilibrium teaches that the changes occurred so suddenly that transitional forms did not survive long enough to be fossilized. It appears that Punctuated Equilibrium is an attempt to explain away the absence of evidence for evolution—but it fails as well.
Since there is no evidence of missing links in the fossil record, evolution should be rejected. The lack of transitional forms in the fossil record is evidence against evolution and in favor of the creation model, which teaches that there are no missing links.56
Evolutionists need a mechanism that explains how evolution has supposedly occurred. Many evolutionists believe that mutation is this mechanism.57 However, as was mentioned in the last chapter, mutations merely scramble the already existing genetic code. No new genetic information is added.58 Yet, for evolution to have occurred, a mechanism is needed through which new genes are produced. Therefore, mutations fail to explain evolution. Evolutionists claim that they believe the present interprets the past. However, there is no mechanism in the present that spontaneously produces new genetic information. Until such a mechanism is found, evolution can only be accepted by “blind faith.”
HEISENBERG’S PRINCIPLE OF INDETERMINACY
Heisenberg’s principle of indeterminacy is a theory in quantum physics. Quantum physics deals with the atom and the motion of subatomic particles.59 The principle of indeterminacy states that it is impossible to determine both the position in space of a subatomic particle and that particle’s motion at the same time.60 Therefore, subatomic particle movement is currently unpredictable for man. This simply means that scientists aren’t yet able to accurately predict where a specific particle will be at a given moment. Some scientists have wrongly concluded from this that things can occur on the subatomic level without a cause. If this were true, then it would be possible that the universe just popped into existence without a cause. If this were the case, it would not favor either evolution or creation. If things can come into existence without a cause, then the basis for modern science crumbles. All experiments would be a waste of time, for any given phenomena could have come into existence without a cause. Therefore, there would be no need to study the elements of the universe any longer. Modern science would die.
Albert Einstein believed that Heisenberg’s principle did not prove that things can occur without a cause. Einstein held that the causes actually do exist, though man may not be able to find them.61 Man is limited in knowledge, and there may be some causes he is unable to find.62 Heisenberg’s principle, therefore, cannot come to the aid of evolution; the universe (since it had a beginning) needs a cause.
In conclusion, evolution is not a proven fact. It is assumed to be true by many scientists, but they have offered no convincing proofs. There is no evidence for the evolution model. This can be seen in the many unproven assumptions held by evolutionists.
First, there is no evidence for spontaneous generation. The belief that life evolved from non-life contradicts both the cell theory and the law of biogenesis. The Miller-Urey experiments have failed to produce life in the lab (if they were successful, it would be evidence for the creation model not the evolution model).
Second, there is no evidence for the evolutionary assumption that the universe is eternal. Evolutionists must accept this by faith. Evolutionists may assume that the universe evolved into existence from nothing, but this assumption goes against all available scientific evidence.
Third, there is no evidence that intelligence could come from non-intelligence. Intelligence shows evidence of design; it could not have been produced by chance.
Fourth, no evidence has been found proving that multi-celled animals came from single-celled animals. (Even the human embryo does not evolve into a human; it has its full human genetic code at conception.63)
Fifth, there is no evidence for the evolution of animals with backbones from animals without backbones.64 Though there should be multitudes of transitional forms between the two groups, none have been found.
Sixth, there is no evidence for the common ancestry of fish, reptiles, birds, and mammals.65 Common anatomy could point to a common Designer; it does not necessarily point to common ancestry.
All the major gaps that evolution must cross are assumed to have occurred; they have not been proven to have occurred. Therefore, evolution itself is an unproven assumption. Those who dogmatically proclaim it as truth spend more time explaining away the scientific evidence against their view than they do providing evidence for their view. Any scientific model which lacks plausibility should be abandoned. Such is the case with evolution.
Evolution needs God, but God does not need evolution. If evolution is true, then God is needed to bring the universe into existence from nothing, to bring life from non-life, and complex life forms from simple life forms. In each case, a miraculous superseding of natural laws is needed. However, if God exists, He doesn’t need evolution. He could have either started the long evolutionary process or He could have created the universe in six literal days. God could have used evolution, but if He did, He covered His tracks. He left no evidence. Since God is not the author of deception, it is reasonable to conclude that evolution is a myth, devoid of any scientific evidence.
1 Tom M. Graham, Biology, the Essential Principles (Philadelphia: Saunders College Publishing, 1982), 75.
4 Hugh Ross, The Fingerprint of God (Orange: Promise Publishing Company, 1991), 53-105.
5 Henry M. Morris, Science and the Bible (Chicago: Moody Press, 1986), 17.
6 Ibid., 66.
8 Morris, Many Infallible Proofs, 292-293.
9 Ibid., 294.
10 Ibid., 295-296.
11 Ibid., 296.
12 Ibid., 295.
13 Paul D. Ackerman, It’s A Young World After All (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1986), 72.
14 Ibid., 73.
15 Ibid., 74.
16 Ibid., 75.
17 see Hugh Ross, Creation and Time (Colorado Springs: NavPress, 1994), entire book.
18 Geisler and Anderson, Origin Science, 150-153.
19 Ibid., 150-152.
20 Louis Agassiz, “Contribution to the Natural History of the United States,” American Journal of Science, (1860): 144-145.
21 Stephen Jay Gould, “Evolution’s Erratic Pace,” Natural History, (May 1977): 14.
22 Morris, Science and the Bible, 67.
23 Huse, 46.
24 Ackerman, 83.
25 Ibid., 84.
28 Morris, Science and the Bible, 68-69.
30 Huse, 147.
31 Morris, Science and the Bible, 70.
32 Ibid., 73.
33 Ibid., 74.
34 Ibid., 75.
35 Ibid., 82-85.
36 Ibid., 83.
37 Ibid., 81.
38 Henry M. Morris, The Biblical Basis for Modern Science (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1984), 350-359. Some of the recent dinosaur sightings noted by Morris include: smaller brontosaurus in the rain forests of the Congo, living plesiosaurs in the Loch Ness and numerous other waterways, and what appears to be a freshly decayed plesiosaur captured and photographed by Japanese fishermen off the coast of New Zealand.
39 Morris, Science and the Bible, 58.
40 Huse, 98.
41 Morris, Science and the Bible, 56.
42 Marvin Lubenow, Bones of Contention (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1992), 79.
43 Morris, Science and the Bible, 56.
45 Ibid., 57-58.
46 Lubenow, 167.
47 Morris, Science and the Bible, 58.
49 Huse, 110.
50 Morris, Science and the Bible, 267-268. see also Huse, 110-112.
51 Huse, 112.
52 Morris, Science and the Bible, 54-55.
54 Huse, 44.
55 Geisler and Anderson, 150-153.
57 Morris, Science and the Bible, 46-47.
59 The World Book Encyclopedia (Chicago: World Book, Inc., 1985), vol. 16, 4.
60 Roy E. Peacock, A Brief History of Eternity (Wheaton: Crossway Books, 1990), 56-59.
61 Ibid., 59.
62 Moreland, Scaling the Secular City, 38-39.
63 Huse, 120.
64 Ibid., 44.