December 25th, 2011
April 22nd, 2016
Dr. Richard Land offers his own take on Dr. Fernandes’ teaching on: “The Death of Man and The Death of Civilization“. The subheadline is, “Student Represents SES Well at ISCA“.
It’s fairly short but an interesting listen. Check it out at:
March 15th, 2016
By Kyle Larson
The writings of Bishop John Shelby Spong have been very influential in the life and thought of the modern church. He has made it his mission to reform the modern church and make it more relevant to a post modern American society. For all his noble intentions, something along the way went very, very wrong.
Bishop John Shelby Spong was born on June 16, 1931 in Charlotte, North Carolina. As a child, young John was exposed to two different forms of Christianity, one from each parent – both dysfunctional. His father did not have much interest in the Christian faith. His mother was a harsh, legalistic Calvinist. Neither set a good example.
Spong’s father would attend church only on Christmas, Easter, and on occasions where it was absolutely necessary. Spong recalls seeing his father kneel by his bed at night to pray. Beyond this, Spong later wrote wrote, there was no serious commitment to Christ. (Here I Stand. 13)
His mother came from a legalistic Calvinistic background. This also did very little to encourage Spong to see God as loving or tolerant. As a result, Spong grew up believing Christianity was some very legalistic form of Calvinism. He notes that John Calvin was mentioned so often in his home by his mother that he thought that Calvin was the fourth member of the God head. (Ibid. 13-14) Tragically, he saw a very hard and stern God in his mother’s Christian faith.
“God, as I was introduced to this Deity through my mother , was very much like a punishing parent, male to be sure. This God had heaven as a place of reward and hell as a place of punishment, and I was taught to fear him.” (Ibid. 13)
There was not much of the joy of the Lord in his house, but only a mindless list of religious duties that Spong had to perform to keep God happy and prevent him from being punished by this stern deity introduced by his mother.
In addition to these distortions of the Christian faith that he saw growing up, he saw the hypocrisy of racism. Racism was a given in the segregated south. Spong gives several examples of the racism that he saw growing up. He notes how all public parks, restrooms, motels were all segregated.
The one incident that stands out in Spong’s mind was when his father hired men to help him around the house. His father had always told him to address older men as “sir”; It was a common Southern hospitality at the time. However, to his shock, Spong discovered that this hospitality code did not apply to black men. One of the hired workers was an African American man. The worker asked young Spong a question. Spong, in his answer to this black worker, addressed him as “sir”. As related later by Spong, this was apparently an almost unpardonable sin to his father. He became very angry with his son for giving a respectable title to a black man such as “sir”. (Ibid. 16-18) Though Spong was young at the time this incident occurred, it made a lasting impact on him as he saw the hypocrisy going on within his own family.
The racism didn’t end there. Playing with black children was constantly forbidden. Even the school he attended was segregated. All these factors would influence how he would later view White Evangelical Christianity, not only in the South, but also throughout the country. Because he was cut off from strong biblical African American churches growing up, he may not have realized that both black and white evangelicals have common roots in a historic Christianity. Both have a history that goes back to the first century with the Apostles themselves. This includes the major creeds of the church that both black and white evangelicals adhere to.
In addition to the superficial commitment to the Christian faith that he saw in his father, his father had an additional problem: he was an alcoholic. Spong wrote vividly about the struggle his father had with alcoholism. Spong describes his father’s alcoholism as “episodic”. He could go for months without drinking, but once he started drinking, “there was no stopping him.” This episodic drinking binge had a devastating effect on Spong’s family, especially on its financial situation. Spong suffered the constant emotional “put downs” by his father when he was drunk when his father would say “You can’t do anything right”. Though his father never physically attacked his mother, he came close to doing just that. (Ibid. 24-25)
Spong’s father suffered a major heart attack shortly after the United States entered World War 2 in December 1941. Though this, along with other complications, should have made Spong’s Father realize that it would wise to stop drinking, this did not occur. His health steadily deteriorated from that point on.
In the midst of all the chaos with his father, Spong decided to get confirmed at his local Episcopal church in April, 1943. His confirmation preparation did not include much serious study of the faith beyond being able to give a simple definition of the word “confirm”.
Things started going seriously downhill for the health of Spong’s father as a result of his enlarged heart. Family members began gathering together to await the end of his life. During this time, as a result of his father’s constant put downs, Spong started making bargains with God that amounted to prayers to God stating “I’ll do this for you, God, you will do this for me.” A part of this bargaining with God had to do with Spong’s sense that he had inadequately prepared for his confirmation, and he wanted to make up for it. But more than that, he saw God as harsh and belittling as his earthly father had been, so he tried to strike bargains with God to gain the acceptance that he never got from his father. (Ibid. 27 )
On the night his father died, the first thing that entered Spong’s young mind was that he had forgotten to say his prayers, and that God was taking revenge by striking down his father in death. Again, Spong saw God as unmerciful and unyielding as his earthly father.
After his father’s death, his mother found a job to help with the family finances. Spong got a job at a local farm milking cows. That first Christmas after his father’s death was especially meaningful to Spong. He received two Christmas presents that year. One was a large picture of Jesus. The other gift was a large King James Bible. Spong states that from that Christmas Day, until now, he has missed very few days reading and studying the Bible. Even though he has developed a totally different understanding of the Bible from that of conservative evangelical Christians, he claims that he cherishes the words of scripture. (Ibid. 24-27)
Around the time of his father’s death, Spong also became more involved in his Episcopal Church. A new Priest came to Spong’s church, Robert Littlefield Crandall. He was a naval chaplain during World War 2. Crandall became like a second father to Spong and became a very stabilizing force in his young life. Crandall took Spong under his wings as he guided him in his spiritual journey.
Spong was very impressed by Mr. Crandall’s high church Episcopal rituals. These rituals included the donning of priestly garments with all the attending prayers, the proper movements and hand gestures for a proper high church Episcopal service as well as knowing the proper way to conduct an Episcopal service for the Eucharist. Mr. Crandall gave the young Spong all the outward forms of godliness and ultimately have him the desire to become an Episcopal Priest. Spong seems to have adopted many of Mr. Crandall’s way in his own life as an Episcopal Priest. One of the main ways that Spong sees himself in the mold of Mr. Crandall is in having the same general outlook on life, which Spong describes as “not pious, but rather secular in his outlook.” Bishop Spong has definitely succeeded in achieving Mr. Crandall’s secular outlook as is evident throughout his writings. (Ibid. 34,35)
Spong graduated from high school, and with the assistance of a college scholarship, was admitted into the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. It might be of some interest to readers to know that this is where Dr. Bart Ehrman currently teaches New Testament studies. (Ibid. 45) It was at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, that Spong got his first dose of Protestant liberal theology. Spong had several University Professors at UNC that would help set the tone for his theological development for years to come.
One of these professors was, whom Spong describes as being “the first Darwinian Christian I had ever met” It was Dr. Jones who first convinced Spong of the theory of evolution. (Ibid. 49) It was another professor, Bill Protreat, who first introduced Spong to some of the pillars of Protestant liberal theology. These pillars included Immanuel Kant, Friederich Scchlermacher, Rene Descarte and Friedrich Nietzche. Besides Rene Descarte, who was an orthodox Christian, the other three people had various levels of belief concerning Christianity. Nietzche was an atheist who was very hostile to the claims of Christianity. So it is evident that throughout his undergraduate studies, Spong studied under university professors who were openly hostile to Christianity.
In 1952, Spong graduated from UNC Chapel with a degree in Philosophy, and beginning the following fall, went to Virginia Theological Seminary. Spong’s seminary training carried him farther and farther away from biblical Christianity. There were four professors at Virginia Theological Seminary who did much to form Bishop Spong’s theological thinking. These “big 4” were Clifford Stanley, Albert Mollogen, Ruel Howe, and Robert O. Kevin. (Ibid. 63) Clifford Stanley taught the history of Christian thought and had an especially strong influence on Spong’s theological development.
Clifford Stanley introduced Spong to the theology of Paul Tillich, whom Stanley had had as a professor at Union Theological Seminary in New York City. Tillich taught that God was not a personal being, but was the “Ground of Being”. This God was “unknowable, mysterious, without form.” Tillich’s God was more of an impersonal force than a personal being with whom someone could have a personal intimate relationship with. Spong latched on to Tillich’s view of God as a non personal entity. Spong was eager to shed his childhood image of God as a type of “Mr. Fix-it” (Ibid. 67,68) Spong writes concerning the liberal theologians who taught at Union Theological Seminary in New York City.
“These theologians never had to deal with the reaction of ordinary folks who felt that their spiritual leader was destroying their faith. That would be the job of graduates like myself.” (Ibid. 68)
Spong then goes on to chide his fellow seminary graduates.
“Most graduates, I would learn, however, would not rise to challenge. They would graduate, pack up their seminary notes, and revert to the piety of their youth, undergirding their preaching with traditional religious understandings. They would claim the power to explain the ways of God to their congregations, thus encouraging the unbelievable concepts of a manipulative, invasive, this world-oriented Deity who governed the intimate details of people’s lives just beyond the sky. I vowed that I would be different when I finally became a Priest.” (Ibid. 68)
This one paragraph shows the danger of superimposing one’s parental upbringing on to the God of scripture. Yet it can be very difficult to have an accurate biblical portrait of the attributes of God when one does not see the basic attribute of love, which scripture defines as the essence of God, in one’s own parents. If one does not understand that “God is love” as the Apostle John writes, then none of the other attributes of God will make any sense.
Spong would continue on with a traditional liberal Protestant seminary education. The standard liberal Protestant seminary education consists of many of the same issues that the average man on the street gives for denying the truth of the Gospel, only in a much more academic setting. These shared objections of the liberal seminarian and the man on the street concern the historical reliability of the Gospels, especially trying to late date them as much as possible to put them out of the reach of eyewitnesses who could confirm or deny the accuracy of the reports concerning the ministry of Jesus. Along with this comes the denial of both the liberal seminarian and the man on the street that the Gospels were written by eyewitnesses. Spong studied all this, and much more. He was a model liberal seminary student, which is why all his later books would sell so well with the masses.
After graduating from Virginia Theological Seminary, his first church assignment was at St. Joseph’s Episcopal Church in Durham, North Carolina in 1955. (Ibid. 81) His church was a mixed congregation made up mostly of students from Duke University. Spong explains that many of the Duke graduate students came from “fundamentalists” homes but, as a result of pursuing their graduate degrees, found a traditional understanding of Jesus too confining for their expanding minds. These Duke students did not want to totally abandon their faith. They instead wanted a more intellectual faith. Spong started to research his sermon topics more deeply in order to reach these graduates. (Ibid.85.86)
It was also at St. Joseph’s that Bishop Spong had his first major “prayer crisis” which caused him to question the Biblical attributes of God. This questioning of God’s attributes came as a result of a counseling session with a young couple who had lost their child to “crib death”. This young couple had been raised on the solid biblical teaching of the attributes of God.
One of these attributes is omniscience, that God knows all things. He sees the past, the present and the future in his “eternal now.’ While we as humans may not know what God is doing, we can find rest in God, knowing that God knows all things and can bring good out of tragedy. These parents believed that the death of their child was somehow a part of God’s overall plan, even though they may never understand his plan in this life. Bishop Spong discouraged these parents from relying on the traditional biblical attributes of God, especially his omniscience. This was like throwing out a life preserver to a drowning man with no rope attached to it to pull him to a place of safety. (Ibid. 88,89)
This dismissing of the biblical attributes of God may have been due to Spong’s dysfunctional home life as a child. He had no family context in which for him to believe in the consistency of God’s love and dependability in the midst of life’s trials. There was no real emotional stability in his home growing up. He had also accepted Paul Tillich’s definition of God as a non personal being. A non personal entity, like water or electricity, has no will or purpose for people, thus, there is no reason to believe in God’s constancy and love in the midst of life’s tribulations.
In 1957, Bishop Spong was transferred to Calvary Parish in Tarboro, North Carolina. (Stand 97) Spong came into direct contact with the ugly reality of Southern racism and the Ku Klux Khan. The Klan had decided to hold a rally in a field near Tarboro, where Spong was the rector at Calvary Church. The Klan denounced Spong for his strong and biblical stance against segregation. The Klan accused Spong of having a light skin black woman as a lover on the side.
Spong relates in an earlier section of his autobiography how during the period of slavery and segregation, multitudes of black woman were raped throughout the South, thus producing children of various shades of black and white. The Klan tried to use this historical fact against Spong, but it did not stick. (Ibid. 103,104)
The schools in the Charlotte, Greensboro and Winston-Salem area became racially desegregated. This caused an emotional explosion in the area, as white parents could not conceive of their children going to school with black children. The threat of violence was a very real possibility.
Spong took a firm solid biblical position on the issue of desegregation of the schools. He reminded his congregation of what Paul taught in Romans about how Christians are called to submit to the governing authorities. Spong also quoted what Jesus taught about “Rendering to Caesar what belongs to Caesar and to God what belongs to God.” This was a solid biblical stance. He was even willing to personally escort black children into their new school on the first day of desegregation. (Ibid. 109,110) As a result of this strong biblical stance, many parishioners within his own church wanted nothing to do with Spong.
As Spong continued to take a biblical stance against segregation, he started receiving serious phone threats from people threatening that they would find “the biggest black niggers” to rape Spong’s three little daughters. Though very frightened by these threats, he continued his biblical stance, as he continued to walk black children to a desegregated school.
In addition to his ongoing fight against racial segregation, Spong continued with his teaching ministry. He started being a “circuit evangelist” for liberal theology as he began speaking at Episcopal churches throughout the South. He started seeing more and more how “fundamentalism” was so deeply entrenched throughout the South and was determined to do something about that. He believed that his academic training in liberal theological institutions was vastly superior to Southern Fundamentalism. (Ibid. 122)
In the summer of 1969, in the midst of his ministerial duties at Calvary church and his lecture tours throughout the South, a search committee group from St. John’s Episcopal Church in Lynchburg paid a visit to Spong. The committee wanted to know if Spong would be interested in being the new rector. (Ibid. 122) Spong accepted the offer, but would not be installed as the rector til the fall. He still had a long summer vacation ahead of him.
He and his family vacationed at Nag’s Head in North Caolina. During this summer vacation, he started reading Honest to God by John A.T. Robinson. Robinson had been an Episcopal Bishop in England who was totally absorbed in liberal theology. The main theme of the book is that Christians need to start talking about God in non-theistic terms. Robinson insisted that the traditional Judeo-Christian understanding of God as a personal being was under assault. If the traditional understanding of God as a personal being was under assault, so was the traditional understanding of Jesus as being the incarnation of God no longer possible.
As Spong continued reading Robinson’s book, he started coming to believe that the traditional version of Christianity and the Gospel was no longer viable in a modern scientific world. Robinson quotes liberal theologian after liberal theologian to prove his point. Christianity had to change or face certain extinction. (Ibid. 122-123)
In the fall of 1969, Spong continued his Adult Bible study class at St. John’s church that he had begun at Calvary Church in Tarboro, North Carolina. The main difference now would be that at St. John’s church, he would take his attack on the Gospel to a whole new level. He would, proudly and boldly, introduce the destructive Higher Criticism that had developed in liberal Protestantism over the last 150-200 years. He would not call it an attack on the Gospel, but this is exactly what it was nonetheless.
He felt that many of the people at St. John’s Church had a “Sunday-school” level understanding of the Bible. He made a determination to teach his adult bible study as though it was a graduate level seminary class in a mainline seminary. He made the specific decision that during the regular Sunday service, he would not raise any critical questions about the Bible or the foundations of the faith. He would do this only in his Adult Sunday School class, where people could come and go as they pleased. (Ibid. 134,135)
Bishop Spong gives a clear description of how he envisioned this class to be:
“I would allow every part of my faith system, its creeds, its Bible, its sacred traditions, to be examined and questioned honestly … No protective barriers, no claim for inerrancy, infallibility or divine relation would be placed around any symbol of Christianity, including core doctrines like the Incarnation, the Trinity, the Resurrection.” (Ibid. 135)
Spong glories in uncertainty about every aspect of the faith because, as has been said before, this mirrors his home life growing up, where uncertainty about everything was the norm. Spong taught on the Documentary Hypothesis, which simply stated, says that the stories found in the first five books of the Bible were legends and myths of the early Jewish people. That they developed over a long period of oral transmission and had no real basis in history. Such events as the fall of man from the garden of Eden, the flood and Noah’s Ark and the Exodus never really happened. (Ibid. 136-137) This class grew to enormous proportions as the class was being discussed during the week in businesses throughout Lynchburg.
After 4 years at St. John’s in Lynchburg, Spong moved on to St. Paul’s Episcopal Church in Richmond, Virginia. Spong continued his Adult Bible class at St. Paul’s Church. Up to this point, his adult Bible class focused on Old Testament Higher Criticism that had developed in the 19th and 20th Centuries. However, beginning at St. Paul’s, Spong began teaching destructive higher criticism of the New Testament. Spong taught that the Jesus of history was totally different from the version of Jesus that the early Christian church had developed over the years.
It was at St. Paul’s Church that Spong had his second major prayer crisis. Spong received a phone call from Cormelia Newton, a parishioner at his church who now find herself in a local hospital with cancer. Spong went to the hospital and had a long comforting talk with her. Cormelia was on chemotherapy and knew that, eventually, the cancer would take her life. After a long conversation with Cormelia, Spong prayed with her and then left the hospital.
On his way home, Spong reflected on the conversation and prayer with Cormelia, and came to the conclusion that prayer was not much benefit to anybody. Spong came to the conclusion that prayer was just “a fantasy”. He saw no personal being to talk to. In his system of belief God is nothing more than an impersonal force, so why bother praying?
As a result of this second prayer crisis, Spong began a sermon series on what he had concluded about prayer. This sermon series would ultimately form the basis of his first book, Honest Prayer, which was published in 1971. Spong wanted his book to be a sequel to John A.T. Robinson’s book Honest to God. (Ibid. 190-195)
From early on in his writing career, Spong wanted to explore the Jewish background of Christianity. He believed that the more Christians understood first century Judaism, the more they would understand their own faith. In 1974, Spong came out with his book This Hebrew Lord. As a result of this first exploration of the Jewish roots of the Christian faith, Spong received a phone call from a local Rabbi Jack Daniel Spiro to invite him to a dialogue on the contents of this book. Spong saw this as a way of building a bridge between the Jewish and Christian communities in the local area.
In one of these dialogues between Spong and Spiro, the heart of Christianity, the incarnation, became the topic of discussion. Spong had the golden opportunity to give this Rabbi a clear biblical understanding of who Jesus of Nazareth really is. Unfortunately, this opportunity was rejected as Spong gave the liberal academia’s assessment of the identity of Jesus. In his explanation of the identity of Jesus to Rabbi Spiro, Spong recounts:
“I wanted people to know that incarnational thought and Trinitarian thought was not fully developed until the fourth and fifth centuries of the common era. Such claims were not in the original proclamation of the Gospel … The Jews, while not admitting to incarnational language were in fact able to point to people whom they believed spoke God’s Word and acted out God’s will. So I approached Christology from this point of view. I hoped that they might be able to see the original Christian claim, that in Jesus, the word of God was spoken and the will of God was being lived out, which then grew into incarnational language.” (Ibid. 239)
Spong then goes on to misrepresent what the doctrine of the incarnation is by using standard Jehovah’s Witnesses arguments.
- Since Jesus prayed to God, he obviously wasn’t praying to himself, therefore Jesus was not God.
- Jesus died, God cannot die, therefore Jesus was not God.
Spong failed to distinguish between the Persons of the Godhead. He believed that God is one person with three roles: the Father, Son and Holy Spirt. This is an ancient heresy known as modalism; It was roundly and rightly condemned at the Council of Antioch in 264 AD. Spong should have known this from his seminary days. He should have learned that modalism has its roots in another heresy called Arianism – which is basically a form of Unitarianism: God is singular in both person and in nature. Like modalism, it was rightly condemned by the early church.
One does not stand against heresy by introducing another heresy to cover up it up. Modalism was labeled heresy in 264 at Antioch and Arianism was labeled a heresy in 325 at Nicea. Yet Spong went even further than just the use of Jehovah’s Witness arguments against the Deity of Christ. At least the Jehovah’s Witnesses teach that Jesus was a pre-existent angel who was the first and greatest creation of Jehovah. Spong demotes Jesus even more than Jehovah’s Witnesses do. In his quest to be a good religious pluralist, Spong sees Jesus as a good man who was conscious of the presence of God in his life.
In his book A New Christianity for a New World, he states several times that Jesus is no different than the founders of other world religions. All the great religious leaders teach that we should all love one another, thus, Jesus is on the same level as all the other founders of the world religions. They’re all basically the same with mere superficial differences keeping them apart.
In 1975, Spong visited a retired Episcopal Priest familiar with Spong and his ministry. In a hospital room with the Priest, Spong submitted his name as a candidate for the Episcopal Bishop of Newark, New Jersey. Spong made it very clear at each point of candidacy that he wanted to be a teaching bishop where he could teach the laity what he had learned in seminary.
In 1976, Spong was elected Bishop of the Episcopal diocese of Newark. After being installed as the Eighth Bishop of Newark, Bishop Spong set out on a huge educational program for the Newark diocese. His goal was to educate both clergy and laity in basic mainline Liberal Protestant scholarship and theology. He would do this through a forum called “The New Dimensions Lecture Series”. (Ibid. 274-276) In this lecture series, Spong brought together all the major liberal theologians of the day.
In his first lecture, Spong went so far as to teach that the resurrection of Jesus was a non-physical event. Overtime, Spong developed this non-physical understanding of the resurrection of Jesus and related it in a book called The Easter Moment.
By the early 1980’s, the Episcopal Church had issued a study in human sexuality. An Episcopal Church Commission was created to study the specific issue of homosexuality. Spong was a part of that commission. Bishop Spong affirmed homosexual relationships.
In the early days of his advocacy, Spong wrote a series of articles in the Episcopal Church’ national newspaper, The Episcopalian One. In the articles, he laid out the major reasons that he affirmed homosexuality. In short, it was due to his association with Dr. Robert Lahita of Cornell Medical Center in New York City. Dr. Lahita believed that homosexual behavior is rooted in brain activity. Since, according to Dr. Lahita, homosexuality is rooted in brain activity, the Bible is wrong in stating that homosexuality is a sin. Bishop Spong ran with this and became ardent advocate for gay ordination and gay marriage. Out of this controversy within the Episcopal Church, came his book Living in Sin?
Controversy erupted again in 1989, when Bishop Spong ordained an openly gay Bishop, Robert Williams. Spong had one condition for Williams to be ordained in the diocese of Newark: Williams must remain in a faithful and monogamous relationship with his same sex partner. This one stipulation by Bishop Spong on Williams is in and of itself unbiblical, but this was the agreement between them and Episcopal ecclesiastical authorities.
If you understand what the gay community in San Francisco was like at the time, it should come as no surprise that Williams specifically violated this one condition by having multiple same sex partners. The infamous bath houses of San Francisco offer ample testimony to this basic fact. Williams responded by complaining that Spong had no right to impose heterosexual standards of monogamous relationships on homosexuals. Having multiple same sex partners, he claimed, is the norm for homosexuals. After much wrangling between Spong and Williams over a sustained period of time, Williams finally resigned.
As the 1990’s rolled in, Bishop Spong changed the direction of his research and writing. He came upon the writings of Michael Goulder, a professor who had been a priest but later became an atheist. The writings of Professor Goulder’s offered evidence that, when the Gospel writers wrote their Gospels, they never meant for their readers to take the texts literally; Instead, the stories were meant to be non historical parables and metaphors. Bishop Spong saw Goulder’s work as a continuation of what David Strauss had done in the 19th century by labeling the Gospel miracles as myths.
Bishop Spong delved deeply into Goulder’s scholarship and, as a result,Bishop Spong wrote several new books on the subject. These books included: A Bishop Rethinks the Virgin Birth, 1992, Resurrection, Myth or Reality, 1994, Liberating the Gospels, Reading the Gospels through Jewish Eyes, 1996. By the late 1990’s, Bishop Spong had finally left the Christian tradition completely behind and became, like those authors he so respected back in the 1950’s, an apostate.
In conclusion, the life and literary work of Bishop John Shelby Spong show a man’s slow descent into apostasy. His cadre of literary works has created a serious challenge for orthodox Christianity. Because he is so successful at using “Christian lingo” with his own non biblical definitions, he has deceived many well meaning people into thinking he is a true Christian.
Even worse, Bishop Spong openly repeats the objections to Christianity that many people on the street have. Most people can’t articulate these objections the way Spong has, so Spong gives steet level objections an articulate voice. This makes Bishop Spong doubly dangerous to the cause of Christ.
For the two specific observations mentioned above, it is very important for Christians to know what they believe and why. He is the perfect Bishop for a Post Modern and Post Christian American society.
John Shelby Spong, Here I Stand: My Struggle for a Christianity of Integrity, Love and Equality, Harper, San Francisco 2001
February 17th, 2016
By Kyle Larson
Flavius Josephus was a well-known Jewish historian of the first century AD. He is remembered for his history of the Jewish people and a book about their struggle to free the land from Roman rule in the mid first century. He is also remembered for defecting to the Romans after a failed military campaign against them resulted in his surrender. At the time, many Jews called derided him as conceited and a traitor. Fortunately, history allows us a much more balanced picture of this historical figure.
Flavius Joesphus was born Joseph ben Matityaho in Jerusalem into a family in the line of the high priest; His mother’s heritage linked directly to the Maccabean dynasty. At a young age, he showed a thirst for knowledge; to know more about his Jewish heritage. As he notes, many of the Jewish Priests came to him while still a boy to ask him questions about the Jewish faith.
At 16, he became a Pharisee. Pharisees were a Jewish group that adhered very strictly to the written law of Moses as well as to the great body of oral tradition that had grown up around the written law. In 63 AD, at the of 26, he sailed to Rome to ask for the release of some Jewish Priests. The priests had apparently risen up in rebellion against Roman authority, had been captured, and were now in Rome as prisoners. Josephus ultimately gained the release of these Priests, and in the process, became good friends with one of the mistresses of Nero.
After returning to Judea from Rome, he found Judea on the brink of revolt against its Roman task masters. He tried to reason with some of the Jewish leaders trying to convince them that it was “suicide” to revolt against Rome. Rome had far superior military forces. His pleadings failed to convince any of the Jewish leaders.
Over the course of time, because of his eminence in the Jewish community, he was called into military service on behalf of the Jewish rebels against Rome in the siege of Gamala. Even at this point, he still tried to convince the Jewish rebels to lay down their arms against Rome. Josephus only went through the motions of supporting the Jewish rebels against Rome.
Later, at the siege of Jotapata, an overwhelming Roman force had Josephus and a number of other rebel leaders backed into a corner; There was no way out. In desperation, they entered into a suicide pact similar to that at Masada. However. Josephus was able to cunningly weasel out of the pact so that, in the end, all the other Jewish leaders committed suicide while he cheated death by suicide.
Ultimately, Josephus surrendered to the Romans and became a slave of the Roman general. He was in their service as translator. At the siege of Jerusalem, Josephus tried again to urge the rebels to lay down their arms. They would not and, as a result, Jerusalem and the Jewish Temple were destroyed. The city was sacked and the temple set on fire.
During the long siege, Josephus became good friends with Titus, the Roman commander against the Jewish rebellion. Fortunately for Josephus, Titus later became Emperor of Rome. After the rebellion, Josephus returned to Rome with Titus where he became the official historian of the rebellion.
Josephus, in his book Antiquities of the Jews, which gives a historical account of the Jewish people, mentions Jesus, John the Baptist, and Jesus’ half brother James. The original quote speaking of Jesus, strangely enough, made it sound as if Josephus was a Christian. This was not the case. Josephus was a Jew. The passage was the subject of much controversy for centuries. Comparing Greek and Latin texts, it appeared that some Christian interpolation had occurred during the second century AD, but no scholar could say how it was altered or by whom.
The answer came in 1971. A Jewish scholar in Jerusalem found a 10th century Arabic version of Josephus’ work translated by Christians living in Arab lands. He also found an 11th century Syraic copy. Comparing the versions together, the interpolation could be removed and the original passage from the point of view of Jewish historian came to light:
“At this time there was a wise man who was called Jesus. His conduct was good and (he) was known to be virtuous. And many people from among the Jews and the other nations became his disciples. Pilate condemned him to be crucified and to die. But those who had become his disciples did not abandon his discipleship. They reported that he had appeared to them three days after his crucifixion, and that he was alive; accordingly he was perhaps the Messiah, concerning whom the prophets have recounted wonders.”
In this much more historically accurate version, Josephus is basically reporting historical facts. He is not trying to get his fellow Jews to believe that Jesus is the Messiah which he himself did not believe. It’s a straight forward historical report which includes his neutral reporting that the disciples reported that Jesus appeared to them. Josephus says Jesus was a wise man and seriously wonders whether or not Jesus was the messiah, not that Jesus WAS the messiah.
This Arabic translation of Josephus’ “Jesus passage” is strong evidence that Jesus really existed and that the gospel narratives are correct.
February 12th, 2016
Being chosen as a co-editor for a new book on Biblical inerrancy, Dr. Fernandes adds his own views to those of others in the field. What is Biblical inerrancy and why is it an important topic?
The following is taken from the official site at: defendinginerrancy.com
WHAT’S INERRANCY!? AND WHY SHOULD I CARE?
It’s been said that a table must have at least three legs to stand. Take away any of the three legs and it will surely topple. In much the same way, the Christian faith stands on three legs. These three legs are the inspiration, infallibility, and inerrancy of Scripture. Take away one, and like the table, the divine authority of the Christian faith will surely topple. These three “in’s” complement each other, yet each expresses a slightly different distinction in our understanding of Scripture.
Inspiration. The first “in” is inspiration and this deals with the origin of the Bible. Evangelicals believe that “God breathed out” the words of the Bible using human writers as the vehicle. Paul writes,
“All Scripture is given by inspiration of God (literally “is God-breathed”), and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness, that the man of God may be complete, thoroughly equipped for every good work.” (2 Tim. 3:16-17)
Infallibility. The next “in,” infallibility, speaks to the authority and enduring nature of the Bible. To be infallible means that something is incapable of failing and therefore is permanently binding and cannot be broken. Peter said “the word of the Lord endures forever” (1 Pet. 1:23-25) and therefore its authority cannot be broken. When addressing a difficult passage, Jesus said, “the Scripture cannot be broken” (John 10:34-35). In fact, He said, “one jot or one tittle will by no means pass away from the law till all is fulfilled” (Mat. 5:18). These speak to the Bible’s infallibility.
Inerrancy. The last “in,” inerrancy, simply means that the Bible is without error. It’s a belief in the “total truthfulness and reliability of God’s words” (Grudem,Systematic Theology, Inter-Varsity, 2004, 90). Jesus said, “Your word is truth” (John 17:17). This inerrancy isn’t just in passages that speak about salvation, but also applies to all historical and scientific statements as well. It is not only accurate in matters related to faith and practice, but it is accurate and without error regarding any statement, period (John 3:12).
BUT IS IT REALLY IMPORTANT?
Yes, inerrancy is extremely important because: (1) it is attached to the character of God; (2) it is taught in the Scriptures; (3) it is the historic position of the Christian Church, and (4) it is foundational to other essential doctrines.
1. It’s Based on the Character of God
Inerrancy is based on the character of God who cannot lie (Heb. 6:18; Titus 1:2). God cannot lie intentionally because He is an absolute moral law-giver. He cannot err unintentionally because He is omniscient. And if the Bible is the written Word of God (and it is), then it is without error.
2. It was Taught by Christ and the Apostles
Inerrancy was taught by Christ and the apostles in the New Testament. This should be our primary basis for believing it. B.B. Warfield said,
“We believe this doctrine of the plenary inspiration of the Scriptures primarily because it is the doctrine which Christ and his apostles believed, and which they have taught us.” (Limited Inspiration, 1962 cited by Mohler, 42)
To quote Jesus himself, “the Scripture cannot be broken” (John 10:35) and “until heaven and earth pass away not an iota, not a dot, will pass away from the Law until all is accomplished” (Matt 5:18).
3. It’s the Historic Position of the Church
Inerrancy is the historic position of the Christian Church. ICBI produced a whole book demonstrating this point (see John Hannah, Inerrancy and the Church, Moody). As Al Mohler pointed out (Mohler, 48-49), even some errantists have agreed that inerrancy has been the standard view of the Christian Church down through the centuries. He cites the Hanson brothers, Anthony and Richard, Anglican scholars, who said,
“The Christian Fathers and the medieval tradition continued this belief [in inerrancy], and the Reformation did nothing to weaken it. On the contrary, since for many reformed theologians the authority of the Bible took the place which the Pope had held in the medieval scheme of things, the inerrancy of the Bible became more firmly maintained and explicitly defined among some reformed theologians than it had even been before.”
They added, “The beliefs here denied [viz., inerrancy] have been held by all Christians from the very beginning until about a hundred and fifty years ago.” (cited by Mohler, 41)
4. It’s Fundamental to All Other Doctrines
Inerrancy is foundational to all other essential Christian doctrines. It is granted that some other doctrines (like the atoning death and bodily resurrection of Christ) are more essential to salvation. However, all soteriological (salvation-related) doctrines derive their divine authority from the divinely authoritative Word of God. So, epistemologically (in a knowledge-related sense), the doctrine of the divine authority and inerrancy of Scripture is the fundamental of all the fundamentals. And if the fundamental of fundamentals is not fundamental, then what is fundamental? Fundamentally nothing! Thus, while one can be saved without believing in inerrancy, the doctrine of salvation has no divine authority apart from the infallibility and inerrancy of Scripture.
IT’S AN ESSENTIAL
Inerrancy deserves high regard among evangelicals and has rightly earned the status of being essential (in an epistemological sense) to the Christian Faith. Thus, to reduce inerrancy to the level of non-essential or even “incidental’ to the Christian Faith, reveals ignorance of its theological and historical roots and is an offense to its “watershed” importance to a consistent and healthy Christianity. Inerrancy simply cannot be rejected without grave consequences, both to the individual and to the Church.
IT’S UNDER ATTACK… RIGHT NOW!
The International Council on Biblical Inerrancy (ICBI) was founded in 1977 specifically over concerns about the erosion of inerrancy. Christian leaders, theologians and pastors assembled together three times over the course of a decade to address the issue. At the first meeting, a doctrinal statement was jointly created titled “The Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy” (see full text here). This document has been described as “a landmark church document” created
“by the then largest, broadest, group of evangelical protestant scholars that ever came together to create a common, theological document in the 20th century. It is probably the first systematically comprehensive, broadly based, scholarly, creed-like statement on the inspiration and authority of Scripture in the history of the church.” (Dallas Theological Seminary, “Records of the International Council On Biblical Inerrancy”)
Despite this modern safeguard, in 2010, Dr. Mike Licona, an evangelical professor, wrote a book titled The Resurrection of Jesus: A New Historiographical Approach. In this book, he suggested that the account of the resurrected saints walking through the city might be “apocalyptic imagery” (Mat. 27:51-53). In other words, he suggested that the events did not actually happen, but that it was lore or legend. Subsequently, Licona resigned from his position with the Southern Baptists and at Southern Evangelical Seminary. What followed is rather alarming. Incredibly, some notable evangelical scholars began to express their support for Licona’s view, considering it consistent with a belief in inerrancy.
SCHOLARS TRYING TO REDEFINE INERRANCY
Of course, in order to defend Licona’s view they had to redefine inerrancy to include what were previously considered to be errors. Some did this by misinterpreting inerrancy as expressed by the ICBI framers.
Since 2011, more alarming statements from Licona have surfaced, including: (1) A denial of the historicity of the mob falling backward at Jesus’ claim “I am he” in John 18:4-6 (RJ, 306, note 114); (2) A denial of the historicity of the angels at the tomb recorded in all four Gospels (Mat. 28:2-7; Mark 16:5-7; Luke 24:4-7; John 20:11-14) (RJ, 185-186); (3) A denial of the accuracy of the Gospel of John by claiming it says Jesus was crucified on the wrong day (debate with Bart Ehrman at Southern Evangelical Seminary, Spring, 2009); (4) A claim that the Gospel genre is Greco-Roman biography which he says is a “flexible genre” in which “it is often difficult to determine where history ends and legend begins” (RJ, 34). Amazingly, these views continue to gain support among the evangelical community.
February 5th, 2016
By Kyle Larson
In the last of our non Jewish writers who mention Jesus, we will look at Lucian of Samasota. Lucian was born in 125 AD in Samosota, a region which today lies in modern day southern Turkey. As a young man, Lucian studied law and Greek literature. As an adult, he became a well know rhetorician, someone who argues cases in the Roman court system. He was also a widely known and popular satirist, speaker, and writer of his day. His most popular writings include:
- A True Story – A take off on the stories found in the Odyssey written by the Greek author Homer several centuries earlier.
- The Passing of Peregrinas – A pagan’s contact with the earliest Christians.
- The Symposium – A satirical look at one of Plato’s writings
Lucian, in his writings on the Christians, views them with disdain. There are probably a few reasons for this. First, Lucian had a habit of satire; It’s not a surprise that he approached Christianity that way. Second, Christianity was still so new that, apparently, Lucian didn’t take the time to investigate Christianity for himself. Despite this, Lucian gives one of the earliest description of Jesus and the Christians by a non Christian:
“The Christians, you know, worship a man to this day — the distinguished personage who introduced their novel rites, and was crucified on that account … You see, these misguided creatures start with the general conviction that they are immortal for all time, which explains the contempt of death and voluntary self devotion which are so common among them; and then it was impressed on them by their original lawgiver that they are all brothers, from the moment that they are converted, and deny the gods of Greece, and worship the crucified sage, and live after his laws. All this they take quite on faith, with the result that they despise all worldly goods alike, regarding them merely as common property.”
It is human nature that when a person does not understand something and has no further interest in checking it out, it is easier to make fun of the thing than to try and discredit it, especially if the person has little or no knowledge about it. This is what Lucian is doing here. He mocks Jesus and the early Christians. Yet for all the mocking that he does, Lucian does not deny the existence of the Christians “lawgiver”, Jesus. He also gives us evidence that early Christians worshiped Jesus as a divinity. So this is again, very early testimony that confirms the existence of Jesus by a non Christian writer
Next week, we will begin looking at Jewish authors who affirm the existence of Jesus as a historical figure.
January 25th, 2016
by Kyle Larson
Pliny the Younger was a well educated Roman lawyer who prosecuted and defended Provincial governors throughout the late first century and early second century Roman Empire. In a series of letters written to Emperor Trajan in the early second century, Pliny the Younger described how he would identify and punish those who refused to offer sacrifices to Emperor Trajan. In particular, these letters included his dealings with Christians.
Pliny the Younger born in Italy around 61 AD. To put that in perspective, Paul and Peter were executed by Nero in 64 AD. Pliny’s father died when he was young, and he was raised by his step-father. His step-father was an imperial official well known for putting down a revolt against the Emperor Nero in 68 AD. Pliny the Younger was also very close to his uncle, Pliny the Elder, who was a close friend to Emperor Vespasian and notable scholar of the first century.
While still young, both Plinys were witness to the eruption of Mount Vesuvius. Both lived opposite the town of Pompeii when it erupted. Pliny the Younger vividly describes the horror that the people of Pompeii felt as a result. His uncle, Pliny the elder, died trying to rescue people caught in the volcanic eruption. As you can imagine, this was very difficult for Pliny the Younger to deal with.
Despite this, Pliny the Younger received an excellent Roman education which included studying rhetoric under Quintilian, the most famous Roman rhetorician of his day and a friend of the Emperor. After completing his education, Pliny entered the imperial service of the Roman Empire. In 110 AD, he became the Roman Governor of Bithynia, the area that covers modern day Turkey. As Governor, he had to deal with a small religious group known as Christians. There was no empire wide persecution, so Pliny was not sure how to deal with the Christians. He decided to write to the Emperor Trajan and share with him what his current policy was in dealing with the Christians.
Emperor Trajan stated that merely being a Christian was crime enough for judicial action. In response, Pliny explained his method of interrogation and the punishments awarded. First, he would give the accused three attempts to either confirm or deny the charge that they were Christians. If it was made clear to him that the accused were Christians, Pliny would then give them the opportunity to deny Jesus and offer burnt sacrifices to the Roman Emperor. If the Christians persistently and stubbornly refused to sacrifice to the Emperor, Pliny would pass judgement. Roman citizens would be sent to Rome for trial. Those not fortunate enough to be citizens were executed.
The Emperor Trajan responded to Pliny and said he had no problem with this procedure. Because the Christians were still a small group, the Emperor wrote that no special effort should be made to actively hunt down the Christians. No anonymous accusations should be accepted. Only accusations by officials and interrogations were sufficient. However, once a person was identified as a Christian, Pliny should then follow the procedure that he outlined in his original letter to the Emperor Trajan.
Pliny, in another place, talks about the high ethical and moral standards that the early Christians received from their teacher Jesus and which they sought to put into practice. He also mentions that Christians sang worship songs to Jesus as “a god”. Both of these confirm the traditional view of what early Christians believed.
Because of his position and connections, we can confidently say that Pliny the Younger was in a good place to give accurate information on the early Christians he encountered. We can believe his descriptions of their moral behavior and how it had been shaped by the ethical teachings of the Jewish teacher named Jesus. So Pliny the Younger offers testimony that a Jewish teacher named Jesus existed, was a great moral teacher, and was worshiped as God at the end of the first century by a group called Christians.
January 18th, 2016
by Kyle Larson
Jesus was real. He existed in a time and lived in a place. History has provided for us numerous sources for his life, his death, and the effect he had on the ancient world. This week, we are going to take a brief look at the Roman scholar and historian Suetonius. He left a short, but telling, account of a strange people causing an uproar in Rome.
Suetonius was a Roman scholar who wrote a notable history of the Roman emperors around the end of the first century AD. He was born in north Africa (modern Algeria) sometime between 67-72 AD. Raised in an upper class family, Suetonius received an excellent classical education by Roman standards, including time spent studying Greek literature and art. He also learned the political and economic aspects of the first century Roman Empire.
Like Tacitus, Suetonius studied Roman Law. He was a close friend of Pliny the Younger, the Roman Governor of what is modern day Turkey. He also had access to vast amounts of Roman historical and archival records once he was appointed to serve as the Director of the Imperial Library as well as other related posts.
His historical writings are many. He wrote on many aspects of Greco-Roman culture. This included such topics as the Greek games, physical disabilities, clothing, Roman festivals and customs. With all these credentials behind him, as we did with Tacitus, we can confidently assert that he was well connected, had access to Roman records, and thus could speak confidently on Jesus and the early Christians.
His major historical work was entitled Lives of the Twelve Caesars. In it, Suetonius chronicles the major Roman Emperors from Julius Caesar to Domitian. When he gets to the reign of the Emperor Claudius, he makes a brief mention of Jesus and the early Christians:
“Because the Jews at Rome caused continuous disturbances at the instigation of Chrestus, he expelled them from the city.”
Bart Ehrman is uncertain if “Chrestus” refers to Jesus or not. Other historians point out that the name “Chrestus” is the same Latin Spelling that Tacitus uses when referring to Jesus.
And we know, Tacitus was an accurate Roman historian. This passage explains that the Jewish population in Rome caused problems for Roman officials because of the growing number of Christians in Rome. As a result, the Emperor Claudius expelled the Jews from Rome. Even Bart Ehrman admits that this historical incident in Suetonius is confirmed by Luke in Acts 18:2.
Both Tacitus and Suetonius confirm that the Christians in Rome followed a Jewish teacher named Jesus who lived in Judea, taught the people, and was ultimately killed under Governor Pontius Pilate of Judea while Tiberius was the Roman Emperor. It is possible that Pilate filed a formal report in Rome that both Tacitus and Suetonius may have had access to.
Now that we have looked at two of the top Gentile writers who mention Jesus, next week, we will look at what the first century Jewish historian Josephus had to say about Jesus.
January 4th, 2016
by Kyle Larson
Tacitus: The Man
Tacitus was born in Gaul, modern day France, and lived between 56 and 120 AD. At the time, Gaul was a Roman Province, having been conquered by Julius Caesar in the middle of the first century BC. Tacitus grew up in an upper class family. This afforded him an excellent education by Roman standards and enabled him to study Roman law. This, in turn, opened the doors for public administrative office. He married the daughter of Agricola, a Roman consul who later was appointed the governor of Britain. By the time he was an adult, Tacitus was well connected to the upper circles of Roman Imperial Administration
The Early Works
As stated above, Tacitus married the daughter of Agricola, who was a high ranking Roman official. Tacitus wanted to honor his father-in-Law Agricola by giving an account of his service to the Roman Empire, so he chose to chronicle Agricola’s reign as the Governor of Britain. In this work, we get a quick glimpse of what life in Britain was like under early Roman rule through the Governorship of Agricola; Britain became a Roman Province late in the first Century.
Tacitus’ second early historical work had to do with life among the Germanic tribes. Tacitus wanted to chronicle how Greco-Roman Culture was superior to Germanic culture. This book gives us a personal, if biased, glimpse into late first century life in the far north of the Roman empire.
The Histories and The Annals
This two most important substantial works of Tacitus are the Histories and the Annals.
1. The Histories (69 AD – 96 AD)
This book covers a period ranging from the time of Emperor Galba to the Emperor Domitian. This historical work takes up 5 books. The first four books as well as part of the fifth book still exists.
2. The Annals (14 AD – 68 AD)
Tacitus, after finishing The Histories, decided to take a further step backwards and wrote on the Imperial reigns from Augustus Caesar to Nero. One thing that seems obvious as one reads Tacitus is that because of his position in the Roman Imperial administration, he had access to earlier sources. He made good use of them.
Tacitus on Christians and Jesus
From his writings, we can gain insight into what Tacitus wrote concerning Jesus and his earliest followers in Rome.
Tacitus wrote in The Annals:
“Consequently, to get rid of the report, Nero fastened the guilt and inflicted the most exquisite tortures on a class hated for their abominations, called Christians by the populace. Christus, from whom the name had its origin, suffered the extreme penalty during the reign of Tiberius at the hands of one of our procurators, Pontius Pilatus, and a most mischievous superstition, thus checked for the moment, again broke out not only in Judaea, the first source of the evil, but even in Rome, where all things hideous and shameful from every part of the world find their center and become popular.”
Tacitus, based on earlier Roman governmental documentation, gives us specific glimpses into the early church. He confirms that Jesus was crucified while Tiberius was Emperor of Rome and Pontius Pilate was the Roman Governor of Judea. This places the crucifixion between 26 and 36 AD. Tacitus also writes that at some point after the death of Jesus, something happened that caused the Christians to re-surface in Judea, and later, into Rome itself.
At one point, Nero had it in mind to remake Rome into a beautiful, art filled Roman utopia. Soon after, old Rome went up in flames. Many to this day suspect Nero was behind it. To quell such rumors at the time, Nero decided to blame the early Christians for the fire. Thus began the first major persecution of the church. Tacitus records this in his Annals. Fortunately, this was not an empire wide persecution, but mainly localized in Rome.
So here we have genuine historical testimony from a Roman historian. According to Roman records of the day as accessed by Tacitus, Jesus was a real person. He actually lived and died a horrible death. He had numerous followers, even in Rome, and they continued to spread his message.
Next week, we will look into the background on Suetonius and on what he wrote on Jesus and the early Christians.
November 19th, 2015
Chapter 7 of Contend Earnestly For The Faith
Many defenders of the faith fail to see apologetics in its wider scope. They often focus only on one apologetic methodology, neglecting the other methodologies. Though choosing to specialize in only one type of apologetics is often admirable, ignorance of the contributions of the other methodologies is unfortunate.
In this chapter, an attempt will be made to examine the entire spectrum of the apologetic discipline. There are basically eight distinct apologetic methodologies. They are:
- Testimonial apologetics,
- Presuppositional apologetics,
- Psychological apologetics,
- Philosophical apologetics,
- Historical apologetics,
- Scientific apologetics,
- Comparative religious apologetics, and
- Cultural apologetics.
Testimonial apologetics is used when a person defends the faith by appealing to evidence from either his own testimony or that of another person. Testimonial apologetics contends for the truth of Christianity by employing evidences from transformed lives and/or divine intervention in one’s life. Evidence from transformed lives deals with providing to others the information about how Jesus has changed the lives of those who have trusted in Him for salvation.
Divine intervention pertains to documenting how God has intervened in the lives of people. Examples of divine intervention would include answers to prayer and genuine episodes of miraculous healing. Regardless of what position a person takes in reference to the continuance or cessation of the spiritual gifts of healings, most Christians would agree that God does at times still heal in answer to prayer.
Many people who consider themselves opposed to the practice of apologetics unknowingly use testimonial apologetics. When they evangelize others, resistance to the gospel is often countered by utilizing testimonial apologetics. The use of testimonial evidences is as much a part of apologetics as any other evidences.
Presuppositional apologetics denies the validity of all other apologetic approaches. This technique for defending the faith teaches that a believer must assume or presuppose the truth claims of Christianity rather than argue for them. On this point presuppositional apologetics is in agreement with fideism. However, presuppositionalists specialize in tearing down anti-Christian belief systems, something true fideists do not do.
The presuppositional methodology is vital to the apologetic task. Still, presuppositionalists need to appreciate the other forms of apologetic argumentation. Presuppositional apologetics is an effective way to defend the faith, but it is not the only way.
Psychological apologetics focuses on man’s psychological need for the God of the Bible. This approach appeals more to the will and the emotions of the person than to his or her intellect. This methodology deals with issues such as the meaningless of life without God. It attempts to explain the dilemma of man (man is both great and cruel).
Psychological apologetics targets the thirst within man to transcend his present earthly experience. This seldom-used approach can be very effective when dealing with modern man. Today’s secular thinkers have generally lost confidence in the power of human reason to find ultimate truth. Yet, modern man has not been able to quench his thirst for meaning.
It is here that Christianity has much to offer. For, the gospel makes sense of life and gives meaning to human existence. Without the God of the Bible, mankind is without any real purpose. However, if one assumes the existence of the God of the Bible, then man has eternal significance. What one does or does not do in this life really does matter. Only Christianity can quench modern man’s thirst for transcendence.
Philosophical apologetics provides rational argumentation for the truth of Christianity. This methodology has been extremely effective in the past. It can also be very successful today among those who have not lost faith in man’s reasoning ability to find answers of ultimate importance.
Philosophical apologetics serves several purposes. It can be utilized in refuting atheism and other anti-Christian world views, providing evidence for God’s existence, proposing solutions to the problem of evil, and establishing the possibility of miracles. Philosophical apologists also argue for the existence of universal moral laws.
Those defenders of the faith who use this apologetic methodology often use both the reasoning processes of the mind and the facts of experience to prove the case for Christianity. Philosophical apologists, when they have completed their task, often move on to historical apologetics.
Historical apologetics provides evidence for the historical claims of the Christian Faith. Evidence is provided for the historical reliability and authenticity of the New Testament manuscripts, Christ’s resurrection and deity, and the inspiration and inerrancy of the Bible. Christianity is a religion that makes historical truth claims. The truth of Christianity depends on the reality of these assertions. Therefore, it is essential that evidences from history be used to establish the veracity of these claims.
Scientific apologetics provides modern scientific evidence that confirms certain truths of Christianity. This method of defending the faith also exposes the weaknesses of the evolutionary model. The Big Bang model, the expansion of the universe, and the second law of
thermodynamics (energy deterioration) are often employed to establish the case for the beginning of the universe and its need for a
supernatural Cause. The highly complex information found in even the most simple life forms is used to prove that the supernatural Cause of the universe must possess intelligence.
COMPARATIVE RELIGIOUS APOLOGETICS
Comparative religious apologetics specializes in the investigation of opposing religions and cults. Evidence is provided to demonstrate that these other belief systems contradict Christianity on essential issues. The comparative religious apologist will attempt to establish both the truth of Christianity and the falsehood of any non-Christian faiths. Often, the refutation will be based upon an appeal to biblical data. Still, philosophical, historical, or scientific evidences are at times called upon to disprove these false belief systems.
Finally, cultural apologetics attempts to prove the superiority of the Christian world view by pointing out the positive consequences of applying Christian principles to a society, as well as the negative consequences of either rejecting the Christian world view or accepting other belief systems. The impact of different religions (including Christianity) on governments and societies will be examined. I will also argue that the rejection of God by Western Civilization will lead to devastating consequences for the West, and that, apart from repentance, Western Civilization will crumble. The cultural apologetics of Christian thinkers C. S. Lewis and Francis Schaeffer will be discussed.
Defenders of the faith often suffer from one of two common misconceptions. First, many Christians verbally oppose the entire field of apologetics. However, unknown to themselves, they often do this while making use of one of the lesser known apologetic approaches (usually testimonial, presuppositional, or psychological). Second, many apologists refuse to acknowledge a methodology other than the one they choose to employ. It has rightfully been said that “all truth is God’s truth.” Therefore, evidences for the Christian faith should not be limited to one area of knowledge. Apologetics can draw from the wealth of information in many different fields (philosophy, history, science, psychology, etc.). Apologists from each methodology should respect the efforts of other defenders using different approaches. Christians can never succeed in the apologetic task by arguing among themselves. Many philosophical apologists (i.e., Geisler, Moreland, Craig, etc.) also utilize historical and scientific evidences. This combinational methodology is a healthy approach for the apologist to take.